CMEMS Arctic MFC: Validation of temperature and salinity profiles

Computation of anomaly correlations include use of monthly depth interval (layer) climatologies. These were derived from the World Ocean Atlas data.

Validation based on data from profiling buoys

Validation of the CMEMS Arctic MFC results for ocean temperature and salinity is performed using data from profiling buoys, which are compiled by the CMEMS In Situ TAC. New sets of buoy data are available daily, while each buoy provides one profile for each 10-day period. The data are available from Argo buoys, with most buoys covering a depth range of 0-2000 m. Read more about the Argo project here.

Bias is defined as averages of model values - observed values.

Profile data are available from ftp.nodc.no (ftp server, password required) for the northern North Atlantic and northwards. This data compilation is distributed by the Norwegian Marine Data Centre (NMD) at the Institute of Marine Reseach (Norway), in collaboration with Coriolis who operates the CMEMS In Situ TAC. Data may also be downloaded as part of the product INSITU_ARC_NRT_OBSERVATIONS_013_031, and from a web interface to the NMD data (in Norwegian).

Results by bulletin date
December 2011
12-28

January 2012
01-04
01-11
01-18
01-25

February 2012
02-01
02-08
02-15
02-22
02-29

March 2012
03-07
03-14
03-21
03-28

April 2012
04-04
04-11
04-18
04-25

May 2012
05-02
05-09
05-16
05-23
05-30

June 2012
06-06
06-07
06-14
06-21
06-28

July 2012
07-05
07-12
07-19
07-26

August 2012
08-02
08-09
08-16
08-23
08-30

September 2012
09-06
09-13
09-20
09-27

October 2012
10-04
10-11
10-18
10-25

November 2012
11-01
11-08
11-15
11-22
11-29

December 2012
12-06
12-13
12-20
12-27

January 2013
01-03
01-10
01-17
01-24
01-31

February 2013
02-07
02-14
02-21
02-28

March 2013
03-07
03-14
03-21
03-28

April 2013
04-04
04-11
04-18
04-25

May 2013
05-02
05-09
05-16
05-23
05-30

June 2013
06-06
06-13
06-20
06-27

July 2013
07-04
07-11
07-18
07-25

August 2013
08-01
08-08
08-15
08-22
08-29

September 2013
09-05
09-12
09-19
09-26

October 2013
10-03
10-10
10-17
10-24
10-31

November 2013
11-07
11-14
11-21
11-28

December 2013
12-05
12-12
12-19
12-26

January 2014
01-02
01-09
01-16
01-23
01-30

February 2014
02-06
02-13
02-20
02-27

March 2014
03-06
03-13
03-20
03-27

April 2014
04-03
04-10
04-17
04-24

May 2014
05-01
05-08
05-15
05-22
05-29

June 2014
06-05
06-12
06-19
06-26

July 2014
07-03
07-10
07-17
07-24
07-31

August 2014
08-07
08-14
08-21
08-28

September 2014
09-04
09-11
09-18
09-25

October 2014
10-02
10-09
10-16
10-23
10-30

November 2014
11-06
11-13
11-20
11-27

December 2014
12-04
12-11
12-18
12-25

January 2015
01-01
01-08
01-15
01-22
01-29

February 2015
02-05
02-12
02-19
02-26

March 2015
03-05
03-12
03-19
03-26

April 2015
04-02
04-09
04-16
04-23
04-30

May 2015
05-07
05-14
05-21
05-28

June 2015
06-04
06-11
06-18
06-25

July 2015
07-02
07-09
07-16
07-23
07-30

August 2015
08-06
08-13
08-20
08-27

September 2015
09-03
09-10
09-17
09-24

October 2015
10-01
10-08
10-15
10-22
10-29

November 2015
11-05
11-12
11-19
11-26

December 2015
12-03
12-10
12-17
12-24
12-31

January 2016
01-07
01-14
01-21
01-28

February 2016
02-04
02-11
02-18
02-25

March 2016
03-03
03-10
03-17
03-24
03-31

April 2016
04-07
04-14
04-21
04-28

May 2016
05-05
05-12
05-19
05-26

June 2016
06-02
06-09
06-16
06-23
06-30

July 2016
07-07
07-14
07-21
07-28

August 2016
08-04
08-11
08-18
08-25

September 2016
09-01
09-08
09-15
09-22
09-29

October 2016
10-06
10-13
10-20
10-27

November 2016
11-03
11-10
11-17
11-24

December 2016
12-01
12-08
12-15
12-22
12-29

January 2017
01-05
01-12
01-19
01-26

February 2017
02-02
02-09
02-16
02-23

March 2017
03-02
03-09
03-16
03-23
03-30

April 2017
04-06
04-13
04-20
04-27

May 2017
05-04
05-11
05-18
05-25

June 2017
06-01
06-08
06-15
06-22
06-29

July 2017
07-06
07-13
07-20
07-27

August 2017
08-03
08-10
08-17
08-24
08-31

September 2017
09-07
09-14
09-21
09-28

October 2017
10-05
10-12
10-19
10-26

November 2017
11-02
11-09
11-16
11-23
11-30

December 2017
12-07
12-14
12-21
12-28

January 2018
01-04
01-11
01-18
01-25

February 2018
02-01
02-08
02-15
02-22

March 2018
03-01
03-08
03-15
03-22
03-29

April 2018
04-05
04-12
04-19
04-26

May 2018
05-03
05-10
05-17

Validation based on data from ITPs

The ARGO program does generally not provide observations from the Arctic Ocean. Therefore, the above validation is complemented by comparisons of model results and observations from Ice Tethered Profilers (ITPs). Read more about Ice Tethered Profilers here.

ITP data are available from ftp.nodc.no (ftp server, password required) for the Arctic Ocean. This data compilation is distributed by the Norwegian Marine Data Centre (NMD) at the Institute of Marine Reseach (Norway), in collaboration with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) who coordinates the ITP program. Data may also be downloaded as part of the product INSITU_ARC_NRT_OBSERVATIONS_013_031. The present locations of active ITPs are shown on a map from the web pages from WHOI.

Results by bulletin date
January 2015
01-01
01-08
01-15
01-22
01-29

February 2015
02-05
02-12
02-19
02-26

March 2015
03-05
03-12
03-19
03-26

April 2015
04-02
04-09
04-16
04-23
04-30

May 2015
05-07
05-14
05-21
05-28

June 2015
06-04
06-11
06-18
06-25

July 2015
07-02
07-09
07-16
07-23
07-30

August 2015
08-06
08-13
08-20
08-27

September 2015
09-03
09-10
09-17
09-24

October 2015
10-01
10-08
10-15
10-22
10-29

November 2015
11-05
11-12
11-19
11-26

December 2015
12-03
12-10
12-17
12-24
12-31

January 2016
01-07
01-14
01-21
01-28

February 2016
02-04
02-11
02-18
02-25

March 2016
03-03
03-10
03-17
03-24
03-31

April 2016
04-07
04-14
04-21
04-28

May 2016
05-05
05-12
05-19
05-26

June 2016
06-02
06-09
06-16
06-23
06-30

July 2016
07-07
07-14
07-21
07-28

August 2016
08-04
08-11
08-18
08-25

September 2016
09-01
09-08
09-15
09-22
09-29

October 2016
10-06
10-13
10-20
10-27

November 2016
11-03
11-10
11-17
11-24

December 2016
12-01
12-08
12-15
12-22
12-29

January 2017
01-05
01-12
01-19
01-26

February 2017
02-02
02-09
02-16
02-23

March 2017
03-02
03-09
03-16
03-23
03-30

April 2017
04-06
04-13
04-20
04-27

May 2017
05-04
05-11
05-18
05-25

June 2017
06-01
06-08
06-15
06-22
06-29

July 2017
07-06
07-13
07-20
07-27

August 2017
08-03
08-10
08-17
08-24
08-31

September 2017
09-07
09-14
09-21
09-28

October 2017
10-05
10-12
10-19
10-26

November 2017
11-02
11-09
11-16
11-23
11-30

December 2017
12-07
12-14
12-21
12-28

January 2018
01-04
01-11
01-18
01-25

February 2018
02-01
02-08
02-15
02-22

March 2018
03-01
03-08
03-15
03-22
03-29

April 2018
04-05
04-12
04-19
04-26

May 2018
05-03
05-10
05-17

Layers

Validation of temperature and salinity profiles is conducted for depth averaged values in pre-defined depth intervals (layers). The intervals are

Profiling buoys ITPs
  • 0-5 m
  • 5-100 m
  • 100-300 m
  • 300-800 m
  • 800-2000 m

  • 5-100 m
  • 100-300 m
  • 300-800 m

Regions

Validation regions

The ocean circulation model used in CMEMS's Arctic MFC covers the Arctic Ocean, the North Atlantic Ocean and adjacent ocean regions. The northern part is depicted in the figure to the left. Validation of temperature and salinity profiles from model results are performed for two domains:

  • an extended domain indicated by the blue and green regions in the figure
  • the Nordic Seas, shown as the green region

However, note that there are rarely any ARGO profile data north of the Nordic Seas, so almost all ARGO observations are either inside of the green region, or in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Labrador Sea (the part of the blue region to the south and to the west of the Nordic Seas). A sample map of the distribution of ARGO profiles (right) illustrates this limitation. ITP data are available from the Arctic Ocean only.




TOPAZ

The model results are produced with the TOPAZ ocean data assimilation model system. Presently, TOPAZ is run weekly with data assimillation one week prior to the bulletin date, followed by a one-week 100 member ensemble simulation ending on the bulletin date, and finally a 10 day deterministic forecast. TOPAZ was developed and is maintained by the Nansen Center.

TOPAZ results are available as aggregated, best estimates, and as a list of Bulletin dates with separate forecasts.